Statement of problem:
Published data have shown that a mechanical surface treatment of titanium surfaces increases bonding potential. However, most of the studies are based on shear or tensile tests performed on flat-surfaced specimens and do not take into consideration the retention given by the titanium base (ti-base) axial walls and the thermomechanical loading seen in a clinical setting.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different airborne-particle abrasion (APA) methods of the ti-base surface on the stability of the bonded interface and retention forces between these titanium bases and lithium disilicate crowns after thermomechanical aging.
Material and methods:
Sixty internal connection implants (Conelog) were restored with lithium disilicate crowns and bonded to the corresponding ti-bases (Conelog). The ti-bases were divided into 4 groups (n=15), 3 experimental groups applying different APA methods, 30-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (CoJet) (30-SiO-AlO), 50-μm Al2O3 (Cobra Aluoxyd) (50-AlO), 110-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (Rocatec Plus) (110-SiO-AlO), and 1 control group (NoT). Ti-bases were airborne-particle abraded (10 seconds, 0.25 MPa at a 10-mm distance) under standardized conditions in a custom-made APA device. All crowns were cemented with a resin cement (Multilink Hybrid Abutment). After aging (1 200 000 cycles, 49 N, 1.67 Hz; 5 °C-55 °C, 120 seconds), all specimens were assessed for the presence of bond failures by optical microscopy (×50). The retention forces (N) were tested by using a pull-off test (0.5mm/min). Modes of failure were classified (Type 1, 2, or 3). An additional ti-base representing each group was prepared for surface roughness (μm) calculation (Ra, Rc, Rz) with a noncontact laser profilometer, and representative scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were recorded (×1000). Chi-squared tests were performed to analyze the bonded interface failure and modes of failure, and a Kruskal-Wallis test was selected to evaluate retention force values (α=.05).
The percentages of bonding failure after aging were 73.3% (NoT), 40% (30-SiO-AlO), 6.7% (50-AlO), and 40% (110-SiO-AlO). The stability of the bonded interface was influenced by the APA method applied (P<.05). Mean ±standard deviation retention force values varied from 206.3 ±86.3 N (NoT) to 420 ±139.5 N (50-AlO), and the differences between these 2 groups were significant (P<.05). Modes of failure were predominantly Type 2 (30-SiO-AlO; 50-AlO; 110-SiO-AlO) and Type 3 (NoT).
Airborne-particle abrasion of the titanium surface increased the bond stability and retention forces between the ti-base and the respective crown. The use of 50-μm Al2O3 provided the most stable bonded interface among the different treatments.