Neurophysiological changes after oral and maxillofacial surgery remain one of the topics of current research.
This study evaluated if implant placement associated with augmentation procedures increases the possibility of sensory disturbances or result in impaired quality of life during the healing period.
Material and methods:
Patients who had obtained an implant placement in the lower jaw in combination with augmentation procedures were examined by implementing a comprehensive Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol for extra- and intraoral use. As augmentation procedures, we used Guided Bone Regeneration (Group A) and Customized Bone Regeneration (Group B) techniques. Patients were tested bilaterally at the chin and mucosal lower lip. Results were compared to a group without augmentation procedures (Group C). Patients' quality of life and psychological comorbidity after the surgical procedures was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
For groups A (n = 20) and B (n = 8), mechanical QST parameters showed no significant differences in all qualities of the inferior alveolar nerve compared to the contralateral side and compared to the nonaugmentation control group (n = 32) as well. Evaluation of quality of life and psychological factors showed no statistical differences.
Augmentation procedures did not increase sensory disturbances, indicating no changes in the neurophysiological pathways. Extended augmentation procedures did not lead to sensory changes either or result in an impaired quality of life or modified anxiety and depression scores.