Successful implant therapy is based on fast, safe, and predictable osseointegration. Several surface modifications have been introduced to improve the bone-to-implant interaction. This in vivo study evaluates the impact of plasma surface conditioning on early wound healing and osseointegration.
Material and methods:
A total of 16 dental implants with a sand-blasted and acid-etched surface were conditioned with cold atmospheric plasma prior to insertion in the frontal bone of four miniature pigs. Sequential fluorescence labeling was administered to label bone metabolism, and after 8 weeks, bone blocks were harvested for radiological, histological, and histomorphometrical evaluation.
The plasma conditioning had no impact on the morphology of the implant surface. The bone-to-implant contact ratio was 90.4% and 86.5%, the interthread bone density 72.5% and 63.4%, and the periimplant bone density 60.5% and 61.1%, in the plasma conditioned group and control group, respectively. Concentric bands of fluorescence enrichment indicated a chronological and homogenous mineralization of newly formed bone. No unwanted periimplant side effects were detected.
The increased parameters for osseointegration in this in vivo study merit further investigation in prospective clinical trials.